LONDON NEW YORK
WILLIAMS & NORGATE G. E. STECHERT & CO.
§ 1. PROBLEM OF PSYCHOLOGY
1. Relation of experiment
and observation in general. 2. Application to psychology: particular significance
of experimental methods for psychology. 3. Pure
observation in psychology. Analysis of mental products: social psychology. 3a. Physiological Psychology.
§ 4. GENERAL SURVEY OF THE SUBJECT
§ 5. CHIEF FORMS AND GENERAL ATTRIBUTES OF PSYCHICAL ELEMENTS
General characterization of the simple feelings. 2. Sense-feelings (affective
tones of sensations). 3. Relations between changes in sensations and feelings.
4. Influence of qualitative sensational changes on the affective state. 5. Influence of sensational intensity on the feelings. 6. Great variety of the simple feelings.
7. The three chief series or dimensions of feelings. 8. Examples of the various forms. 9. Bodily concomitants of feelings. 10. Special relation of different forms
of feeling to the pulse. 10a. Physiological conditions of symptoms of feeling.
II. PSYCHICAL COMPOUNDS.
§ 8. DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF PSYCHICAL COMPOUNDS
c. Relations between the location of the elements in regard to one another and their location in regard to the subject
§ 11. TEMPORAL IDEAS
Favoring attributes of the auditory sense. Continuous and discontinuous
rhythms. 7. Analysis of simple ideas of beats. Influence of the mode of
presentation of the sensations on ideas of beats. 8. Changes in the rhythmical perception through various objective conditions. 9. Subjective conditions
of rhythmical time ideas.
C. General conditions for temporal ideas
Affective processes in general. 2. Character of intensive affective combinations.
3. Component feelings and resultant feelings, partial feelings and total
feelings. Interlacing of the affective elements. 3a. Exemplification with musical compound clangs. 4. Common feelings. 5. Pleasurable and unpleasurable
feelings. 6. Contrast feelings. 6a. Deficiency of the physiological theories of common feelings. 7. Elementary aesthetic feelings. Agreeableness and
disagreeableness. 8. Intensive and extensive feelings. 9. Intensive feelings: color combinations and clang combinations. 10. Extensive feelings: feelings from
form and those from rhythm. 11. Psychological theory of composite feelings. 12. Principle of the unity of the affective state. 12a. Special theory of musical
harmony and discord.
§ 13. EMOTIONS
1. Definition of emotions. 2. Names of emotions. 3. General course of emotions. 4. Physical concomitants: expressive movements. 5. Classification of the expressive movements. 6. Changes in the pulse and respiration. Quiet, sthenic and asthenic, rapid and sluggish emotions. 7. Intensification of the emotions through the physical concomitants. 7a. History of the theory of the emotions. The passions. 7b. Relation of the changes in innervation to the formal attributes of the emotions. 7c. The experimental observation of the psychical effects of emotions. 8. Psychological classification of the emotions. 9. Emotional forms of the affective qualities. Pleasurable and unpleasurable, exciting and depressing, straining and relaxing emotions. 10. Names of emotions. 11. Emotional forms of affective intensities: weak and strong emotions. 12. Forms of occurrence: sudden, gradually rising, intermittent emotions. 12a. Predominating significance of the affective qualities for the discrimination of emotions.
§ 14. VOLITIONAL PROCESSES
1. Relation to the emotions. 2. External volitional acts. 3. Relation to the feelings. 4. Motives of volition. 5. Development of volition. Impulsive acts. 6. Voluntary and selective acts. 7. Resolution and decision. The feeling of activity. 8. Weakening of emotions through intellectual processes. 9. Development of internal volitional acts. 10. Retrogradation. Volitional processes become mechanical. Purposive character of reflex movements. 10a. Critique of theories of will. 11. Temporal course of volitions. Reaction-experiments. Complete and shortened reactions. 12. Compound reactions. 13. Higher forms of volition. 14. Reactions become automatic. 14a. General significance of reaction-experiments. Psychical times (time of recognition, time of choice, time of association, etc.). Chronometric apparatus.
III. INTERCONNECTION OF PSYCHICAL COMPOUNDS.
§ 15. CONSCIOUSNESS AND ATTENTION
4. The relating process. 5. The comparing process. 6. Discovery of agreements and differences. 7. Measurements of psychical elements and compounds. 8. Difference between psychical and physical measurement. 9. Methods of psychical measurement. 10. Stimulus-threshold and difference-threshold. Weber's law. 10a. Weber's law in detail and the methods for its demonstration. 11. Psychological contrast phenomena. 12. Interconnection with the physiological contrast in vision. 13. Contrast between impression and expectation.
B. Complex apperceptive functions (synthesis and analysis)
14. Aggregate ideas. 15. Psychological analysis of the activity of "imagination". 16. Psychological character of the activity of "understanding". 17. Psychological character of concepts. 18. Imagination and understanding as individual traits. Talent.
§ 18. PSYCHICAL STATES
1. General conditions of abnormal states. 2. Changes in elements. 3. Changes in ideational compounds: hallucinations and illusions. 4. Abnormalities in affective and volitional processes: states of depression and exaltation. 5. Abnormalities of consciousness. 6. Changes in association and in apperception. 7. Dreams. 8. Hypnosis. 9. Relations between sleep and hypnosis. 9a. Physiological theories of sleep, dreams, and hypnosis.
IV. PSYCHICAL DEVELOPMENTS.
§ 19. PSYCHICAL ATTRIBUTES OF ANIMALS
1. General remarks on the psychical development of animals. 2. Rate of animal development and one-sidedness of their functions. 3. Animal instincts. 4. Development of the instincts. 5. Genetic relation of animals to man in regard to mental development. 5a. Deficiency of determination of the line of division in regard to psychological attributes. Theories of instincts.
§ 20. PSYCHICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD
1. Development of sense functions. 2. Psychical elements in the individual development. 3. Rise of spatial ideas. 4. Development of temporal ideas. 5. Associations and apperceptive combinations. 6. Development of self-consciousness. 7. Development of will. 8. Development of speech. 9. Activity of the child's imagination. Play-impulse. 10. Functions of the understanding. 10a. Mistakes in child psychology.
§ 21. DEVELOPMENT OF MENTAL COMMUNITIES
I. Differences between human and animal communities. 2. Products of human communities.A. Speech
3. Gesture language. 4. General development of articulate language. 5. Changes in sound and meaning. 6. Psychological significance of the order of words.B. Myths
7. Personifying apperception. 8. General conditions for its development. 9. Animism and fetishism. 10. The nature myth.C. Customs
11. Individual and social laws of custom. Relation of myths to the ordinary conditions of life. 12. Changes in the meaning of customs. Differentiation into customs, laws, and morality.D. General Character of the Developments studied in Social Psychology
13. Condensation, obscuring and corrupting of ideas. Influence of affective processes. 14. Collective consciousness and collective will. 14a. Critical remarks.
V. THE PRINCIPLES AND LAWS OF PSYCHICAL CAUSALITY.
§ 22. CONCEPT OF MIND
I. The general principle of causality. 2. The concepts matter, force, and energy. 3. Mind as the supplementary concept of psychology. 4. The concept of a mind-substance. 5. Materialistic and spiritualistic concepts of mind. 6. The mind as an actuality. 7. Scientific development of the concept of actuality. 8. The problem of the relation between body and mind. 9. The principle of psycho- physical parallelism. 10. Necessity of an independent psychical causality.
§ 23. The PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHICAL PHENOMENA .
1. The three general principles. 2. The principle of psychical resultants. 3. The principle of creative synthesis. 4. Increase of psychical, and constancy of physical, energy. 5. The principle of psychical relations. 6. The principle of psychical contrasts. 7. Relation of the principle of contrasts to the first two principles.
§ 24. THE GENERAL LAWS OF PSYCHICAL DEVELOPMENT
1. The three general laws of development. 2. The law of mental growth. 3. The law of heterogony of ends. 4. The law of development towards opposites.
ABBREVIATIONS FOR THE JOURNALS TO WHICH REFERENCE HAS BEEN MADE IN THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THIS VOLUME.
Psychol. Stud. = Psychological Studies, edited by W. wundt. (In the series of the Phil. Stud.)
Zeitschr. f. Psych. = Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane, edited by ebbinghaus and nagel (formerly KÖNIG).
Arch. f. Psych. = Archiv fur die gesamte Psychologie, edited by E. meumann.
Psych. Arbeiten = Psychologische Arbeiten, edited by E. KRAEPELIN.
Amer. Jour. = American Journal of Psychology, edited by G. stanley hall, E. C. stanford and E. B. titchener.
Psych. Rev. = Psychological Review, edited by J. mark baldwin, H. C. warren and C. H. judd.
PFLÜGERS Archiv = Archiv für die ges. Physiologie, edited by E. PFLÜGER.
Arch. f. Physiol. = Archiv fur Physiologie, edited by th. W. engelmann.
TO THE FIRST ENGLISH EDITION.
The difficulties that arise in choosing English equivalents for many German words, are too familiar to require detailed discussion. The translator has derived assistance in this respect from a comparison of other standard translations, especially the English versions of falckenberg's "History of Modern Philosophy", wundt's "Lectures on Human and Animal Psychology", and KÜLPE'S "Outlines of Psychology". The terminology here employed differs, however, at many points from that used in the works mentioned. A glossary of the principal terms has been added for the benefit of those familiar with the German. The translation of the word "Perception" is unusual. If it were translated 'perception' it would be easily confused, especially in its verbal forms, with the only possible equivalent of "Wahrnehmung", "wahrnehmen", and " Anschauung". Since the process referred to by "Perception" is so entirely different from that indicated by the English word perception, it seemed best to employ a word whose signification is not so fixed. Apprehension was, accordingly, used, and the danger of confusing it with the translation of "Auffassung" was for the most part avoided by using other equivalents for the latter.
The thanks of the translator are due to the author for his courtesy throughout the progress of the work. Mr. G. H. STEMPEL has kindly aided in the task of preparing the proofsheets for the press.
Middletown, September, 1896.
THIS book has been written primarily for the purpose of furnishing my students with a brief manual to supplement the lectures on Psychology. At the same time it aims to give the wider circle of scientific scholars who are interested in psychology, either for its own sake or for the sake of its applications, a systematic survey of the fundamentally important results and doctrines of modern psychology. In view of this double purpose, I have limited myself in detailing facts to that which is most important, or to the examples that serve most directly the ends of illustration, and have omitted entirely those aids to demonstration and experiment which are properly made use of in the lecture-room. The fact that I have based this treatise on the doctrines that I have come to hold as valid after long years of labor in this field, needs no special justification. Still, I have not neglected to point out both in a general characterization (Introduction § 2), and with references in detail, the chief theories that differ from the one here presented.
The relation in which this book stands to my earlier psychological works
will be apparent after what has been said. The "Grundzüge der physiologischen
Psychologie"1 aims to bring the means employed by the natural
sciences, especially by physiology, into the service of psychology, and
to give a critical presentation of the experimental methods of psychology,
which have developed in the last few decades, together with their chief
results. This special problem rendered necessary a relative subordination
of the general psychological points of view. The second, revised edition
of the " Vorlesungen über die Menschen- und Tierseele"2)
(the first edition has long been out of date) seeks to give a more popular
account of the character and purpose of experimental psychology, and to
discuss from the position thus defined those psychological questions which
are also of more general philosophical importance. While the treatment
in the "Grundzüge" is, accordingly, determined in the main
by the relations of psychology to physiology, and the treatment in the
by philosophical interests, this Outlines aims to present psychology
in its own proper coherency, and in the systematic order which the nature
of the subject-matter seems to me to require. In doing this, however, it
takes up only what is most important and essential. It is my hope that
this book will not be an entirely unwelcome addition even for those readers
who are familiar with my earlier works as well as with the discussion of
the "Logik der Psychologie" in my "Logik der Geisteswissenschaften"
(Logik, 2. Aufl., II, 2. Abt.).
1) A translation of this work is being prepared under the title Principles of Physiological Psychology by Professor E. B. Titchener. The first part of the first volume appeared under date 1904.
2) Translated by Prof. J. E. Creighton and Prof. E. B. Titchener: "Lectures on Human and Animal Psychology", Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1894.
Leipzig, January 1896.
TO THE GERMAN EDITIONS FROM THE FOURTH TO THE SEVENTH.
THE fourth edition contained more additions and minor revisions than did the second and third editions. The chief change is one which I introduced in compliance with a request that has frequently been made; this change consists in the addition of brief lists of reading references at the end of each of the sections and chief divisions. These references, in keeping with the general character of the book, must of course be limited to the most important contributions to the discussions in question; and not all the important references can be given, but those must be selected which will furnish the reader who wishes to go into the subject more thoroughly with easy means of finding further references for his study. Sections of my "Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychology", and my "Vorlesungen über die Menschen- und Tierseele", which have been included in these lists of references are cited from the fifth and third editions respectively, and are referred to by abbreviated titles1).
Beginning with the sixth edition a number of diagrams have been included.
These are intended to render the discussions to which the figures relate
more intelligible to the reader who is not acquainted with the natural
sciences which contribute to psychology.
1) In the English edition references to the Grundzüge are given under the abbreviation Grundz.; references to the Vorlesungen are given under the abbreviated English title Lectures.
Leipzig, March 1901 and January 1905.
TO THE SECOND ENGLISH EDITION.
—345, 346—349. There are also a number of lesser revisions. The reading references which the author inserted in his fourth edition are repeated without change of any kind except the substitution of English titles for German titles wherever this was possible. Since the references are presented by the author as a selected bibliography, it did not seem wise to make any additions. The pages on which these references appear in this edition are given in the index under "References".
Changes have been freely introduced in the phraseology of the English translation. It has not been necessary to make any significant changes in the terminology adopted for the earlier edition. The translator is under obligations to the reviewers of his work, and to a number of those who have used the book as a class text-book, for suggestions of which he has taken advantage in his work of revision. It is hoped that these friendly critics will find the present form of the translation improved at points where the earlier edition may have been open to objection. Finally, the translator wishes to acknowledge his obligations to the publisher who has spared no pains in the effort to make as easy as possible the difficult task of putting an English book through a German press.
New Haven, 1902.
THIS edition includes all that is in the seventh German edition. The principle changes since the fourth German edition, from which the second English edition was made, consist in the figures which have been added and in additions to the text which appear in this volume on the following pages: 34, 36—37, 44—46, 53, 54—55, 58, 64, 69—70, 76—77, 82 —83, 96—97, 105. 109, 111—112, 128—129, 132, 139—140, 142, 151, 154—155, 166—167, 209, 223, 224, 225—227, 235— 237, 239—242, 246, 279—281, 364—365, 367. Minor revisions need not be especially noted as they do not modify the essential character of the book. Advantage has been taken of the opportunity afforded by a resetting of the type to make a thorough revision of the English. This has not, however, led to any changes in terminology as compared with earlier editions.
New Haven, 1907.