OUTLINES

OF

PSYCHOLOGY

BY

WILHELM WUNDT

TRANSLATED WITH THE COOPERATION OF THE AUTHOR BY CHARLES HUBBARD JUDD, Ph. D. (LEIPZIG)
PROFESSOR OF PSYCHOLOGY AND DIRECTOR OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL LABORATORY YALE UNIVERSITY
THIRD REVISED ENGLISH EDITION FROM THE SEVENTH REVISED GERMAN EDITION
LEIPZIG
PUBLISHED BY WILHELM ENGELMANN

LONDON NEW YORK

 

WILLIAMS & NORGATE G. E. STECHERT & CO.

1907


CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION.

§ 1. PROBLEM OF PSYCHOLOGY

1. Older definitions. 2. Psychology as the science of immediate experience. 3. Relation to the mental and to the natural sciences. 3a. Knowledge as gained through the natural sciences mediate and conceptual, that gained in psychology immediate and perceptual. § 2. GENERAL FORMS OF PSYCHOLOGY 1. Metaphysical psychology: spiritualistic and materialistic, dualistic and monistic systems. 2. Empirical psychology: two principles for the classification of its varieties. 3. Psychology of the inner sense. 4. Psychology as the science of immediate experience. 5. Descriptive psychology: faculty-psychology. 6. Explanatory psychology: intellectualistic and voluntaristic psychology. 7. Intellectualistic forms: logical theory and association psychology. 8. Erroneous intellectualistic attribution of the nature of things to ideas. 9. Voluntaristic psychology. 10. Governing principles of the following treatise. 10a. Tabular summary of chief forms. Their historical development. § 3. METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY

        1. Relation of experiment and observation in general. 2. Application to psychology: particular significance of experimental methods for psychology. 3. Pure
           observation in psychology. Analysis of mental products: social psychology. 3a. Physiological Psychology.

§ 4. GENERAL SURVEY OF THE SUBJECT

1. Analytic and synthetic problem of psychology. Psychical elements. 2. The various synthetic problems in order: psychical compounds, interconnections, and developments. 3. Laws of psychical phenomena and their causality.
 
 
I. PSYCHICAL ELEMENTS.

§ 5. CHIEF FORMS AND GENERAL ATTRIBUTES OF PSYCHICAL ELEMENTS

1. Discovery of psychical elements through abstraction. 2. Two kinds of psychical elements: sensations and feelings. 3. Elementary nature and specific character of psychical processes not identical. 4. Common attributes of psychical elements: quality and intensity. 5. Homogeneous and complex, one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and many-dimensional systems of quality. 6. Distinguishing characteristics of sensational and affective elements. 6a. Remarks on the history of the concepts sensation and feeling. § 6. PURE SENSATIONS. 1. The concept pure sensation. 2. Rise of sensations. Sense-stimuli. 3. Physiological substrata of the sensational systems. Mechanical and chemical senses. 4. The so-called law of specific energy of nerves. 5. The law of parallelism of changes in sensation and physiological stimulation. 5a. On the history of the concept "specific energy". A. Sensations of the general sense 6. Definition of the general sense. Sensational systems of this sense. 7. Attributes and differences of the various parts of the organ of the general sense. 8. The four systems of the general sense in detail.
 
 
B. Sensations of sound 9. Simple noise sensations. 10. Tone sensations. 11. The system of tone sensations. C. Sensations of smell and taste 12. Sensations of smell. 12 a. Classes of olfactory qualities. Reciprocal neutralization of odors. 13. Sensations of taste. The four primary qualities. 13a. Mixture and neutralization of gustatory stimuli. D. Sensations of light 14. Sensations of achromatic light. 15. Sensations of chromatic light. 16. Saturation of colors. 17. Brightness of colors. 18. Relations between sensations of achromatic and sensations of chromatic brightness. Three-dimensional system of light sensations. 19. The four principal sensations. 19a. Confusion between principal sensations and fundamental qualities. 20. Relations between sensation and stimulus for the visual sense. 21. Complementary colors and color mixtures. 22. The three fundamental colors. 23. Inference of the photochemical character of retinal stimulation. 24. Persistence of the stimulation. 25. Light contrasts and color contrasts. 25a. Physiological theories. Color-blindness.
 
§ 7. SIMPLE FEELINGS

            1. General characterization of the simple feelings. 2. Sense-feelings (affective tones of sensations). 3. Relations between changes in sensations and feelings.
            4. Influence of qualitative sensational changes on the affective state. 5. Influence of sensational intensity on the feelings. 6. Great variety of the simple feelings.
            7. The three chief series or dimensions of feelings. 8. Examples of the various forms. 9. Bodily concomitants of feelings. 10. Special relation of different forms
            of feeling to the pulse. 10a. Physiological conditions of symptoms of feeling.

II. PSYCHICAL COMPOUNDS.



§ 8. DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF PSYCHICAL COMPOUNDS

1. Definition of the concept psychical compound. 2. Composition of the psychical compounds. 3. Classification of the same. § 9. INTENSIVE IDEAS 1. General attributes of intensive ideas. Fusion. 2. Survey of the intensive fusions in the various sensational spheres. 3. Intensive auditory ideas: the single clang. 4. Conditions for the rise of complete clang fusion. 5. Compound clangs. 6. Difference-tones. 7. Noise. 7a. Theories of clang analysis and tonal fusion. § 10. SPATIAL IDEAS 1. General concept of extensive ideas. Special characteristics of spatial ideas. 2. Psychological problem of analysis of spatial ideas. 3. Kinds of spatial ideas. A. Spatial touch ideas 4. Localization of touch stimuli. Qualitative local signs. 5. Rise of spatial touch ideas in normal cases with vision. 6. The tactual sense of the blind. 7. Theory of spatial ideas of the blind. 8. General character of the space fusions of touch. 9. Fusions with memory elements. 10. Ideas of one's own movements when vision is present. 11. Ideas of one's own movements in the case of congenital blindness. 12. Ideas of the position and movement of the whole body. 12a. Theories of the rise of spatial ideas of touch. B. Spatial sight ideas 13. General character of visual ideas. 14. General factors of such ideas. a. The location of the elements of a visual idea in relation to one another 15. Localization in the field of vision. 16. Keenness of localization in different regions of the field of vision. Direct and indirect vision. 16a. Effects of metamorphopsia. 17. Ocular movements. 18. Relation of ocular movements to localization. 19. Constant optical illusions of direction and length, due to laws of ocular movement. 20. Variable illusions in direction and length, due to the universal attributes of movement. 20a. Analogous facts of touch. 20b. Part played by association. 21. Distances in the field of vision not dependent on the proximity of retinal elements to each other. 22. Two elements of spatial vision. Retinal local signs and empirical demonstration of the same. 22a. Relation to touch. 23. General theory of spatial vision. b. The location of visual ideas in relation to the ideating subject 24. Point of orientation in binocular vision. Direction of the line of orientation. 25. Idea of the length of the line of orientation. 26. Discrimination of far and near. 27. Perception of points at different distances. 28. Theory of binocular ideas of three dimensions. 29. Varying conditions for ideas of depth. Influence of lines of fixation. 30. Binocular double images and localization in depth.

c. Relations between the location of the elements in regard to one another and their location in regard to the subject

31. Erect vision. 32. Surface of the field of vision. 32a. The complex local signs of depth and binocular parallax. 33. The stereoscope. 34. Monocular ideas of depth. Influence of accommodation. 35. The elements of perspective. 35 a. Survey and criticism of the theories.

§ 11. TEMPORAL IDEAS

1. General attributes of temporal ideas. 2. Characteristics of temporal as distinguished from spatial order. 2a. The form of temporal ideas and their names. A. Temporal touch ideas 3. Relation of the mechanical attributes of the limbs to the temporal ideas. 4. The rhythmical tactual movements. 5. The tactual ideas of beats. B. Temporal auditory ideas

            6. Favoring attributes of the auditory sense. Continuous and discontinuous rhythms. 7. Analysis of simple ideas of beats. Influence of the mode of
            presentation of the sensations on ideas of beats. 8. Changes in the rhythmical perception through various objective conditions. 9. Subjective conditions
            of rhythmical time ideas.

C. General conditions for temporal ideas

10. Specific character of temporal ideas. 11. The inner fixation-point. 12. The continuous flow and one-dimensional character of time. 13. General theory of temporal ideas. The temporal signs. 13a. Geometrical representations of time. Nativistic and genetic theories. § 12. COMPOSITE FEELINGS

            1. Affective processes in general. 2. Character of intensive affective combinations. 3. Component feelings and resultant feelings, partial feelings and total
            feelings. Interlacing of the affective elements. 3a. Exemplification with musical compound clangs. 4. Common feelings. 5. Pleasurable and unpleasurable
            feelings. 6. Contrast feelings. 6a. Deficiency of the physiological theories of common feelings. 7. Elementary aesthetic feelings. Agreeableness and
            disagreeableness. 8. Intensive and extensive feelings. 9. Intensive feelings: color combinations and clang combinations. 10. Extensive feelings: feelings from
            form and those from rhythm. 11. Psychological theory of composite feelings. 12. Principle of the unity of the affective state. 12a. Special theory of musical
            harmony and discord.

§ 13. EMOTIONS

1. Definition of emotions. 2. Names of emotions. 3. General course of emotions. 4. Physical concomitants: expressive movements. 5. Classification of the expressive movements. 6. Changes in the pulse and respiration. Quiet, sthenic and asthenic, rapid and sluggish emotions. 7. Intensification of the emotions through the physical concomitants. 7a. History of the theory of the emotions. The passions. 7b. Relation of the changes in innervation to the formal attributes of the emotions. 7c. The experimental observation of the psychical effects of emotions. 8. Psychological classification of the emotions. 9. Emotional forms of the affective qualities. Pleasurable and unpleasurable, exciting and depressing, straining and relaxing emotions. 10. Names of emotions. 11. Emotional forms of affective intensities: weak and strong emotions. 12. Forms of occurrence: sudden, gradually rising, intermittent emotions. 12a. Predominating significance of the affective qualities for the discrimination of emotions.


§ 14. VOLITIONAL PROCESSES

1. Relation to the emotions. 2. External volitional acts. 3. Relation to the feelings. 4. Motives of volition. 5. Development of volition. Impulsive acts. 6. Voluntary and selective acts. 7. Resolution and decision. The feeling of activity. 8. Weakening of emotions through intellectual processes. 9. Development of internal volitional acts. 10. Retrogradation. Volitional processes become mechanical. Purposive character of reflex movements. 10a. Critique of theories of will. 11. Temporal course of volitions. Reaction-experiments. Complete and shortened reactions. 12. Compound reactions. 13. Higher forms of volition. 14. Reactions become automatic. 14a. General significance of reaction-experiments. Psychical times (time of recognition, time of choice, time of association, etc.). Chronometric apparatus.

 

III. INTERCONNECTION OF PSYCHICAL COMPOUNDS.




§ 15. CONSCIOUSNESS AND ATTENTION

1. The concept consciousness. 2. Physiological conditions. 2a. Localization of psychical functions in the brain. 3. Simultaneous and successive interconnection of conscious processes. Grade of consciousness. The sinking of psychical processes into the state of unconsciousness. 4. Apperception and attention. 5. Degree of clearness of contents of consciousness. 6. Scope of attention and of consciousness. 6a. Methods for the investigation of the scope of attention. 6b. Methods of investigation of the scope of consciousness. 7. Affective influence of conscious contents which are merely apprehended. 8. Feeling of apperception. Passive and active apperception. 8a. Experimental methods. 9. Interconnection of processes of attention and of volition. 10. The concepts subject and object. 11. Self-consciousness. 12. Further development of the discrimination between subject and object. 12 a. Critique of the dualistic hypotheses. 13. Transition of the various psychical processes of combination. § 16. ASSOCIATIONS 1. History of the concept of association. 2. The ordinarily so-called associations complex products of elementary associative processes. 3. Chief forms of elementary associative processes. A. Fusions 4. General character of fusions. 5. Chief forms of fusion. B. Assimilations 6. General character of assimilations. 7. Auditory assimilations. 8. Assimilations in the sphere of intensive affective processes. 9. Spatial assimilations of touch and vision. 10. Psychological analysis of assimilative processes. 11. Differences among these processes. Illusion. C. Complications 12. Attributes and chief forms of complications. D. Successive associations 13. Interconnection with the assimilations. 14. General character of successive associations. 14a. Serial association. a. Sensible recognition and cognition 15. Attributes and differences of these processes. Feeling of familiarity. 16. Passage from simultaneous to successive processes. 17. Differences between processes of recognition and those of cognition. b. Memory processes 18. Rise out of processes of recognition. 18a. Interconnection and general significance of memory processes. 19. Stages of a memory process: mixed forms between recognition and remembering. 19a. The so-called "mediate association". 20. Memory processes based on repeated recognitions and cognitions. 21. Elements of memory processes. 21 a. Classification of complex forms of association. 22. Character of memory ideas. 23. The concept memory. § 17. APPERCEPTIVE COMBINATIONS 1. Subjective attributes of apperceptive combinations. 2. Relation to associations. 3. General classification of apperceptive combinations. A. Simple apperceptive functions (relating and comparing)
4. The relating process. 5. The comparing process. 6. Discovery of agreements and differences. 7. Measurements of psychical elements and compounds. 8. Difference between psychical and physical measurement. 9. Methods of psychical measurement. 10. Stimulus-threshold and difference-threshold. Weber's law. 10a. Weber's law in detail and the methods for its demonstration. 11. Psychological contrast phenomena. 12. Interconnection with the physiological contrast in vision. 13. Contrast between impression and expectation.


B. Complex apperceptive functions (synthesis and analysis)

14. Aggregate ideas. 15. Psychological analysis of the activity of "imagination". 16. Psychological character of the activity of "understanding". 17. Psychological character of concepts. 18. Imagination and understanding as individual traits. Talent.


§ 18. PSYCHICAL STATES

1. General conditions of abnormal states. 2. Changes in elements. 3. Changes in ideational compounds: hallucinations and illusions. 4. Abnormalities in affective and volitional processes: states of depression and exaltation. 5. Abnormalities of consciousness. 6. Changes in association and in apperception. 7. Dreams. 8. Hypnosis. 9. Relations between sleep and hypnosis. 9a. Physiological theories of sleep, dreams, and hypnosis.

 
 
 

IV. PSYCHICAL DEVELOPMENTS.

§ 19. PSYCHICAL ATTRIBUTES OF ANIMALS

1. General remarks on the psychical development of animals. 2. Rate of animal development and one-sidedness of their functions. 3. Animal instincts. 4. Development of the instincts. 5. Genetic relation of animals to man in regard to mental development. 5a. Deficiency of determination of the line of division in regard to psychological attributes. Theories of instincts.


§ 20. PSYCHICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD

1. Development of sense functions. 2. Psychical elements in the individual development. 3. Rise of spatial ideas. 4. Development of temporal ideas. 5. Associations and apperceptive combinations. 6. Development of self-consciousness. 7. Development of will. 8. Development of speech. 9. Activity of the child's imagination. Play-impulse. 10. Functions of the understanding. 10a. Mistakes in child psychology.


§ 21. DEVELOPMENT OF MENTAL COMMUNITIES

I. Differences between human and animal communities. 2. Products of human communities.
A. Speech
3. Gesture language. 4. General development of articulate language. 5. Changes in sound and meaning. 6. Psychological significance of the order of words.
B. Myths
7. Personifying apperception. 8. General conditions for its development. 9. Animism and fetishism. 10. The nature myth.
C. Customs
11. Individual and social laws of custom. Relation of myths to the ordinary conditions of life. 12. Changes in the meaning of customs. Differentiation into customs, laws, and morality.
D. General Character of the Developments studied in Social Psychology
13. Condensation, obscuring and corrupting of ideas. Influence of affective processes. 14. Collective consciousness and collective will. 14a. Critical remarks.

 

V. THE PRINCIPLES AND LAWS OF PSYCHICAL CAUSALITY.




§ 22. CONCEPT OF MIND

I. The general principle of causality. 2. The concepts matter, force, and energy. 3. Mind as the supplementary concept of psychology. 4. The concept of a mind-substance. 5. Materialistic and spiritualistic concepts of mind. 6. The mind as an actuality. 7. Scientific development of the concept of actuality. 8. The problem of the relation between body and mind. 9. The principle of psycho- physical parallelism. 10. Necessity of an independent psychical causality.


§ 23. The PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHICAL PHENOMENA .

1. The three general principles. 2. The principle of psychical resultants. 3. The principle of creative synthesis. 4. Increase of psychical, and constancy of physical, energy. 5. The principle of psychical relations. 6. The principle of psychical contrasts. 7. Relation of the principle of contrasts to the first two principles.


§ 24. THE GENERAL LAWS OF PSYCHICAL DEVELOPMENT

1. The three general laws of development. 2. The law of mental growth. 3. The law of heterogony of ends. 4. The law of development towards opposites.


GLOSSARY
 
 





ABBREVIATIONS FOR THE JOURNALS TO WHICH REFERENCE HAS BEEN MADE IN THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THIS VOLUME.

Phil. Stud. = Philosophical Studies, edited by W. wundt.

Psychol. Stud. = Psychological Studies, edited by W. wundt. (In the series of the Phil. Stud.)

Zeitschr. f. Psych. = Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane, edited by ebbinghaus and nagel (formerly KÖNIG).

Arch. f. Psych. = Archiv fur die gesamte Psychologie, edited by E. meumann.

Psych. Arbeiten = Psychologische Arbeiten, edited by E. KRAEPELIN.

Amer. Jour. = American Journal of Psychology, edited by G. stanley hall, E. C. stanford and E. B. titchener.

Psych. Rev. = Psychological Review, edited by J. mark baldwin, H. C. warren and C. H. judd.

PFLÜGERS Archiv = Archiv für die ges. Physiologie, edited by E. PFLÜGER.

Arch. f. Physiol. = Archiv fur Physiologie, edited by th. W. engelmann.
 
 

TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE

TO THE FIRST ENGLISH EDITION.

THIS translation was made with the cooperation of the author, who not only contributed many valuable criticisms and suggestions in regard to terminology, but also read all the proof-sheets as they were being prepared for the press. A few verbal changes have been introduced into the text with a view to making the discussion somewhat clearer.

The difficulties that arise in choosing English equivalents for many German words, are too familiar to require detailed discussion. The translator has derived assistance in this respect from a comparison of other standard translations, especially the English versions of falckenberg's "History of Modern Philosophy", wundt's "Lectures on Human and Animal Psychology", and KÜLPE'S "Outlines of Psychology". The terminology here employed differs, however, at many points from that used in the works mentioned. A glossary of the principal terms has been added for the benefit of those familiar with the German. The translation of the word "Perception" is unusual. If it were translated 'perception' it would be easily confused, especially in its verbal forms, with the only possible equivalent of "Wahrnehmung", "wahrnehmen", and " Anschauung". Since the process referred to by "Perception" is so entirely different from that indicated by the English word perception, it seemed best to employ a word whose signification is not so fixed. Apprehension was, accordingly, used, and the danger of confusing it with the translation of "Auffassung" was for the most part avoided by using other equivalents for the latter.

The thanks of the translator are due to the author for his courtesy throughout the progress of the work. Mr. G. H. STEMPEL has kindly aided in the task of preparing the proofsheets for the press.

Middletown, September, 1896.

C. H. J.
 
 
AUTHOR'S PREFACE
TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION.

THIS book has been written primarily for the purpose of furnishing my students with a brief manual to supplement the lectures on Psychology. At the same time it aims to give the wider circle of scientific scholars who are interested in psychology, either for its own sake or for the sake of its applications, a systematic survey of the fundamentally important results and doctrines of modern psychology. In view of this double purpose, I have limited myself in detailing facts to that which is most important, or to the examples that serve most directly the ends of illustration, and have omitted entirely those aids to demonstration and experiment which are properly made use of in the lecture-room. The fact that I have based this treatise on the doctrines that I have come to hold as valid after long years of labor in this field, needs no special justification. Still, I have not neglected to point out both in a general characterization (Introduction § 2), and with references in detail, the chief theories that differ from the one here presented.

The relation in which this book stands to my earlier psychological works will be apparent after what has been said. The "Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie"1 aims to bring the means employed by the natural sciences, especially by physiology, into the service of psychology, and to give a critical presentation of the experimental methods of psychology, which have developed in the last few decades, together with their chief results. This special problem rendered necessary a relative subordination of the general psychological points of view. The second, revised edition of the " Vorlesungen über die Menschen- und Tierseele"2) (the first edition has long been out of date) seeks to give a more popular account of the character and purpose of experimental psychology, and to discuss from the position thus defined those psychological questions which are also of more general philosophical importance. While the treatment in the "Grundzüge" is, accordingly, determined in the main by the relations of psychology to physiology, and the treatment in the "Vorlesungen" by philosophical interests, this Outlines aims to present psychology in its own proper coherency, and in the systematic order which the nature of the subject-matter seems to me to require. In doing this, however, it takes up only what is most important and essential. It is my hope that this book will not be an entirely unwelcome addition even for those readers who are familiar with my earlier works as well as with the discussion of the "Logik der Psychologie" in my "Logik der Geisteswissenschaften" (Logik, 2. Aufl., II, 2. Abt.).
 
 

1) A translation of this work is being prepared under the title Principles of Physiological Psychology by Professor E. B. Titchener. The first part of the first volume appeared under date 1904.

2) Translated by Prof. J. E. Creighton and Prof. E. B. Titchener: "Lectures on Human and Animal Psychology", Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1894.

Leipzig, January 1896.

W. Wundt.
 
 
AUTHOR'S PREFACE

TO THE GERMAN EDITIONS FROM THE FOURTH TO THE SEVENTH.

THE fourth edition contained more additions and minor revisions than did the second and third editions. The chief change is one which I introduced in compliance with a request that has frequently been made; this change consists in the addition of brief lists of reading references at the end of each of the sections and chief divisions. These references, in keeping with the general character of the book, must of course be limited to the most important contributions to the discussions in question; and not all the important references can be given, but those must be selected which will furnish the reader who wishes to go into the subject more thoroughly with easy means of finding further references for his study. Sections of my "Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychology", and my "Vorlesungen über die Menschen- und Tierseele", which have been included in these lists of references are cited from the fifth and third editions respectively, and are referred to by abbreviated titles1).

Beginning with the sixth edition a number of diagrams have been included. These are intended to render the discussions to which the figures relate more intelligible to the reader who is not acquainted with the natural sciences which contribute to psychology.
 
 

1) In the English edition references to the Grundzüge are given under the abbreviation Grundz.; references to the Vorlesungen are given under the abbreviated English title Lectures.

Leipzig, March 1901 and January 1905.

W. Wundt.
 
 
TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE

TO THE SECOND ENGLISH EDITION.

THIS second edition includes all that the author has incorporated in the fourth German edition. The most extended additions to the text are to be found on the following pages of this edition: 1820, 50, 7879, 94, 9799, 108, 110113, 127, 138, 184185, 192193, 221222, 232 233, 248251, 271274, 285286, 306307, 330, 341

345, 346349. There are also a number of lesser revisions. The reading references which the author inserted in his fourth edition are repeated without change of any kind except the substitution of English titles for German titles wherever this was possible. Since the references are presented by the author as a selected bibliography, it did not seem wise to make any additions. The pages on which these references appear in this edition are given in the index under "References".

Changes have been freely introduced in the phraseology of the English translation. It has not been necessary to make any significant changes in the terminology adopted for the earlier edition. The translator is under obligations to the reviewers of his work, and to a number of those who have used the book as a class text-book, for suggestions of which he has taken advantage in his work of revision. It is hoped that these friendly critics will find the present form of the translation improved at points where the earlier edition may have been open to objection. Finally, the translator wishes to acknowledge his obligations to the publisher who has spared no pains in the effort to make as easy as possible the difficult task of putting an English book through a German press.

New Haven, 1902.

C. H. J.
 
 
TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE
TO THE THIRD ENGLISH EDITION.

THIS edition includes all that is in the seventh German edition. The principle changes since the fourth German edition, from which the second English edition was made, consist in the figures which have been added and in additions to the text which appear in this volume on the following pages: 34, 3637, 4446, 53, 5455, 58, 64, 6970, 7677, 82 83, 9697, 105. 109, 111112, 128129, 132, 139140, 142, 151, 154155, 166167, 209, 223, 224, 225227, 235 237, 239242, 246, 279281, 364365, 367. Minor revisions need not be especially noted as they do not modify the essential character of the book. Advantage has been taken of the opportunity afforded by a resetting of the type to make a thorough revision of the English. This has not, however, led to any changes in terminology as compared with earlier editions.

New Haven, 1907.

C. H. J.